で indicates location (environment): at|in - or the means.

は marks (terminates) the subject of a sentence.

-に indicates direction, going.

-へ indicates direction, going.

-な indicates the usage of a noun as an adjective.

と means "and". Also used for complete lists as a separator between list members.

や is used as a separator between list members of incomplete lists.

か means "or".

の means "'s" ("of", just backwards), as in "shepherd's song" for "song of shepherds" ("shepherd の song").

It is used in conjuntions of substantives: <substantive> の <substative>

を indicates the object of something ("letter を write" = "to write [a] letter"). The object is before を, the action verb after を.

が indicates the object of something ("letter が write" = "to write [a] letter"). The object is before が, the action verb after が. が is used when one wants to place emphasis on the subject.

から

-から means "[starting] from".

まで

-まで means "up to".